Sailors take warning The greater frequency of lightning strikes in shipping lanes, as opposed to in less-frequented regions of the ocean, may be connected to exhaust particles. an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world. As we start the new year, there has been no shortage of memes, social media posts, and other commentary justifiably expressing an intense dissatisfaction with the events of 2020. In particular, we examine several hypotheses for the fall in life satisfaction in developing MENA countries that are linked to the symptoms of the broken social contract and include dissatisfaction with: (1) the political system of autocracy and limited civil freedoms, (2) the standard of living, (3) the high unemployment and poor quality of available jobs, and (4) corruption in the form of nepotism or cronyism. Dissatisfaction definition, the state or attitude of not being satisfied; discontent; displeasure. As the Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 14 mission, he spent nine hours working on the lunar surface in the Fra Mauro Highlands region, making him the sixth person to walk on the Moon. The binary nature of the variables possibly limits the expressive capacity of respondents and consequently some variation is lost. Scrutinising participation in the Arab Spring uprisings. The incomes of the bottom 40 percent, measured as 2005 PPP‐adjusted per capita expenditure, grew at higher rates than average expenditures in many developing Arab countries for which information was available (Ianchovichina 2015). On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time” (standard item in the Gallup World Poll). From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Such advantageous terms of employment are very attractive to workers. Why did development in MENA not translate into higher levels of subjective well‐being? Naming a thing is an indication that the thing so named is set. On average, in the fully specified model 7 in Table 2, the life satisfaction score of dissatisfied respondents is 1.24 points lower than the life satisfaction score of respondents who are satisfied with their living standards. Better educated than their parents, young people expected to do better than the previous generation, but instead they struggled to find good quality jobs and to get ahead no matter how hard they worked. Cross‐Country Evidence from the ESS, Economic Growth and Subjective Well‐Being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox, Why Social Policy Needs Subjective Indicators, “Happiness: Also Known as: ‘Life Satisfaction’ and ‘Subjective Well‐Being’, Inside Inequality in the Arab Republic of Egypt: Facts and Perceptions Across People, Time, and Space, Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test‐Retest Reliability, Subjective Well‐being and Nonviolent Uprisings, Middle East and North Africa: Sustaining the Recovery and Looking Beyond, Global Development Goals in an Era of Demographic Change, Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016. Dissatisfaction with basic public services such as healthcare, housing, schools, and infrastructure also grew in the developing MENA countries, according to Gallup World Poll data, reflecting the erosion in the quality of public services. The higher the score on the ladder, the closer one’s life is seen to his or her ideal life. Since these results are in line with the WLS estimates and do not present a problem with reverse causality, we consider them our main results on determinants of life satisfaction in the MENA region. "You develop an instant global consciousness, of people, orientation, and intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. https://en.wikiquote.org/w/index.php?title=Edgar_Mitchell&oldid=2812820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. × Join Over ... and a few out-of-the-ordinary goings on in the world delivered to your inbox. After independence, natural resource rents enabled many Arab governments to finance redistributive policies without imposing a heavy tax burden on citizens. A smaller (but significant) part of the decrease in life satisfaction can be attributed to an increase in the dissatisfaction with the education system and government efforts to increase the quality of jobs.2929 In addition, differences in the values of some control variables explain the difference in life satisfaction in Arab Spring countries between 2009 and 2010. For example, household expenditures may rise as a result of an increase in food prices. The word “happiness” is used in various ways (Veenhoven, 2012). In the broadest sense it is an umbrella term for all that is good. In other words, we make the case that both objective and subjective (or perceptions) data matter for understanding the relative importance of grievances for the collective action observed during the Arab Spring (see Okulicz‐Kozaryn, 2013; Jahedi and Méndez, 2014). In MENA, the social contract between the state and its citizens delivered progress visible in the improvement of some objective development measures. He also provides evidence that in the developed world, where the basic standard needs are satisfied, richer societies are not much happier than poorer ones. (see Table 4). In the preceding decade, the MENA region’s average, aggregate and youth unemployment rates were the highest in the world. "You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world and a compulsion to do something about it. A look at the universal conditions for happiness, as presented in cross‐country studies focusing on life satisfaction, provides limited understanding of the factors behind the low levels of life satisfaction in the Arab world. Change in Satisfaction with Life and GDP Growth, 2007–10. Some Empirical Evidence. The life satisfaction gap in Arab Spring countries between 2009 and 2010 can largely be explained by the deterioration in satisfaction with living standards, followed by losses in income and the increase in the percentage of unemployed individuals. These domains of life reflect the most important human needs as identified by Maslow (1943). Model 8 replicates model 7 using a reduced sample of Arab Spring countries where the uprisings were most intense.2121 These countries are Egypt, Arab. Without guarantees of secure public jobs, young people, who entered the labor market better prepared than their parents in terms of educational qualifications (Campante and Chor, 2012; Barro and Lee, 2013), were forced to queue for public sector jobs or take part‐time or low‐quality jobs in the private sector (Chamlou, 2014)1010 The informal sector consists of firms, workers, and activities that operate outside the legal and regulatory frameworks. The deterring effect of unemployment on happiness is more severe for the long‐term unemployed (Clark and Oswald, 1994), which is particularly high in the MENA region, and for people with limited job opportunities (Clark et al., 2010). Finally, dissatisfaction alone does not bring political action, which typically arises only in combination with perceived chances for change (Klandermans, 1996; Witte et al., 2018). Importantly, over the past decades the region had made notable strides in reaching not only the Millennium Development Goals related to poverty and access to infrastructure services (especially drinking water and sanitation and Internet connectivity), but also those related to reducing hunger and child and maternal mortality, and increasing school enrollment (Iqbal and Kiendrebeogo, 2016). Strikingly, civil and political freedom (42.4 percent) only comes in fourth place and is, hence, neither found associated with dissatisfaction in developing MENA nor regarded as one of the most important grievances related to the uprisings. Finally, Section 5 concludes with a summary of findings, a discussion of how these results link to the grievances voiced during the Arab Spring uprisings, and a few caveats. In Yemen, gender‐matched sampling was used, while the sample for Palestinian territories includes people in East Jerusalem. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***. Several explanations have been put forward for the grievances that led to the rise in dissatisfaction rates on the eve of the Arab Spring. Employment’s Role in Enabling and Constraining Marriage in the Middle East and North Africa. Second, before estimating the second stage of the regressions using the generated instruments, we carefully consider the choice of Z. Reflecting diminishing marginal utility, the widespread system of subsidies could not compensate for the erosion of living standards; food and energy subsidies mattered less for the well‐being of the middle class than they did for the well‐being of the poor and vulnerable (World Bank, 2011; Ianchovichina 2015; Araar and Verme, 2016).99 World Bank (2011) reports that in fiscal year 2008/09, the share of food subsidies in the total consumption of the poorest 20 percent of the Egyptian population was 15 percent, whereas the corresponding share for the richest 20 percent of Egyptians was just 7.4 percent. Edgar Mitchell Similarly, Morocco’s score decreased from 4.7 to 3.4 during the same period. Individual anxiety over rising costs of food or shelter can trigger unhappiness and, in some cases, riots (Lagi, Bertrand, and Bar‐Yam, 2011). Suppressed citizens compromised their voice and freedom in exchange for material benefits provided by the state (Devarajan and Ianchovichina, ). which did not generate enough formal jobs (Ianchovichina, 2018). To examine the effects of unemployment, underemployment, and job market conditions, we include subjective and objective variables related to employment and the education system. Corresponding Author. The unemployed report life satisfaction scores that are 0.34 points lower than people in paid employment. “You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. The data source also allows for cross‐country comparisons and region‐based aggregation of micro‐level information given the use of identical questions across countries and years. To reflect on job market conditions and the availability of high‐quality jobs, respondents were asked: “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with efforts to increase the number of quality jobs?” and to this question they could either reply that they are satisfied, recorded as 0, or dissatisfied, coded as 1. There was growing frustration with inequality of opportunity in labor markets and the increased importance of “wasta” or connections with the elites in getting good quality jobs. In some countries, including Egypt, Jordan and Libya, the index was stable in the 2000s, but most MENA countries scored below the worldwide average on various governance indicator rankings (for example, Kaufmann et al., 2011). Libya and Tunisia were ranked 111th and 118th of 177 countries, respectively, and so they appeared among the stronger and less fragile countries in the world (Goodwin, 2011). 'They seem so helpless': Hongkongers flock to aid besieged protesters Protesters form a human chain to pass items to the frontline during clashes with police as … Table 2 reports results from different specifications of our life satisfaction model. I am deeply dissatisfied - about so many things, about injustice, about the way the world works - and in some ways, my dissatisfaction drives my storytelling. In Morocco, people in the southern provinces, representing 3 percent of the population, were not interviewed by Gallup World Poll. Thus, the life satisfaction variable captures indirectly the effect of a gap between expected and actual welfare. In this model all coefficients are similar to those in model 7. Huxley wrote that the focus of Brave New World isn't science itself, but science as it affects people. Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007), The Determinants of Child Mortality Reduction in the Middle East and North Africa, On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Subjective Measures, A Stata Implementation of the Blinder‐Oaxaca Decomposition, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues, Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis, The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Using Heteroscedasticity to Identify and Estimate Mismeasured and Endogenous Regressor Models, Male‐Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets, OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development), Ownership Structures in MENA Countries: List Companies, State‐Owned, Family Enterprises and Some Policy Implications, City Life: Rankings (Livability) Versus Perceptions (Satisfaction), Good Governance and Happiness in Nations: Technical Quality Precedes Democracy and Quality Beats Size, All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia, All in the family: State capture in Tunisia. While public services were free, their quality was so poor that people ended up paying for services provided by the private sector. The three distributions are distinctly different as indicated by the results from the Kolmogorov‐Smirnov test for equality of distributions. ― Edgar Mitchell How is the declining dissatisfaction before the Arab Spring linked to the grievances voiced by protestors during the Arab Spring demonstrations? Individuals who obtain “material benefits” in exchange for political support may initially express dissatisfaction with their standards of living rather than with the system responsible for their deterioration. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. The answer to the question: “Is corruption widespread within government?” could be that the level of corruption within government is limited, recorded as 0, or widespread, recorded as 1. The longstanding regimes managed to stay in power through a combination of repressive practices and a social contract which extended benefits, such as free public education and health services, subsidized energy and food products, and guarantees of public employment, in exchange for political support (Bellin, 2004; Cammett and Diwan, 2013; Bromley, 2015).55 Cammett and Diwan (2013) refer to this social contract as an “autocratic bargain.” Thus, despite human development and economic progress after independence, the developing MENA countries scored low in terms of economic and social freedoms and the Freedom House ranked the region as the most repressive in the world (Freedom House, 2008). The answer to this question is coded as 0 if satisfied or 1 if dissatisfied. Distribution of Life Satisfaction Scores in Sub‐Saharan Africa in 2009–10. Reforms in the 1990s were implemented in an uneven way, benefiting mainly the elites (Chekir and Diwan, 2012; Rijkers et al., 2014) who dominated a range of economic sectors (Malik and Awadallah, 2013). Respondents who think that people cannot get ahead by working hard report, on average, a 0.22 points lower life satisfaction score than those who are satisfied with this dimension of life satisfaction (model 7, Table 2). These feelings were broadly shared and reflected the perceptions of citizens that “wasta” mattered more than credentials for getting good jobs. Despite progress with economic and social development over several decades, life satisfaction was relatively low and declining in many developing Arab countries in the second half of the 2000s—a situation described in this paper as the “unhappy development” paradox. Completed four years of education beyond high school and/or 4‐year college degree. These marginal effects are in line with our findings. The phenomenon of declining levels of happiness during a time of moderate‐to‐rapid development represents an “unhappy development” paradox. In other words, if these basic needs are not supplied, all other human needs are pushed into the background and the individual only seeks to satisfy his or her hunger. Satisfaction with Life and GDP per Capita, 2007–10. The worsening perceptions about corruption and crony capitalism were reflected in the retreat of MENA countries’ rankings on the Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International between 2000 and 2010. Hence, perceptions about worsening standards of living, labor market conditions, corruption and “wasta” are not only strongly associated with dissatisfaction with life and decline of subjective well‐being levels before the Arab Spring, but are also viewed as the main grievances associated with the Arab Spring protests. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. This page was last edited on 21 June 2020, at 14:49. The main findings related to the subjective factors, representing the main grievances on the eve of the Arab Spring, can be summarized as follows. Dissatisfaction with job market conditions was particularly strong in the developing MENA countries on the eve of the Arab Spring. Are the unhappy unemployed to blame for unrest? Dissatisfaction, intense lobbying ahead of February 6 cabinet expansion in Karnataka BS Yediyurappa (File photo) BENGALURU: A wave of dissatisfaction has hit the six-month-old BJP government against the backdrop of chief minister B S Yediyurappa's announcement to induct 13 aspirants in the second cabinet expansion on February 6. In addition, we control for whether people are employed in government positions or not (reference category is “Other”). During this period, unemployment increased and many households noted deterioration in their standard of living. Figures 3-6 show a graphic representation of the decomposition of the differential between 2009 and 2010 for the developing MENA and the Arab Spring countries2727 The detailed Blinder‐Oaxaca decomposition can be found in Appendix D. The coefficient and their respective confidence intervals are available in Appendix D, Table D2. All questions were originally coded as follows: (1) satisfied, (2) dissatisfied, (3) don’t know, and (4) refuse. How happy people are depends on objective conditions and subjective factors, including perceptions and expectations. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. The foundation of achievement is intense desire. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. In a way, this is perhaps the most optimistic line in Brave New World—it speaks to the strength of the human spirit. See more. This was not the case for gasoline and diesel. read: “Taking all together, how happy would you say you are: very happy, quite happy, not very happy, not at all happy?” (standard item in the World Value Studies) or “Please imagine a ladder, with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. Edgar Dean "Ed" Mitchell (born September 17, 1930 - February 4, 2016) was a former American astronaut. The risk of riots is particularly high in lower‐income countries where the share of food and other necessities in household expenditure is high (Arezki and Brückner, 2011). The Impact of Democracy and Culture on Happiness, Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? The rest of the paper tests these hypotheses, the relative importance of different grievances for life satisfaction and its decline during the period immediately preceding the Arab Spring. Clark, 2003). Unemployment and Life Satisfaction: A Cross‐Cultural Comparison, Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability. More recently, attention has shifted to a pattern observed in several transition countries, where high economic growth was accompanied by declining well‐being levels within countries (e.g., Brockmann et al., 2009; Easterlin et al., 2012; Graham et al., 2017). Schooling, Economic Opportunities, and the Arab Spring, The Economics of Happiness and Anger in North Africa, Inequality‐Aversion and Income Mobility: A Direct Test, Boon or Bane? (Click the themes infographic to download.). Subjective Well‐Being and Peaceful Uprisings. from 5.5 in 2007 to 4.6 in 2010 (see Appendix A2)—a deep drop in the context of improvements observed in socioeconomic statistics and growth in per capita incomes (see Figure 1b). The responses indicate that the main grievances behind the outburst of social discontent during the Arab Spring uprisings are closely linked to the domain satisfactions shaping the level of subjective well‐being in developing MENA prior to the Arab Spring (Table 5). - Kekich Credo #59 It's hard to break out of our comfort zones. This finding is in line with the view that the “autocratic bargain” has weakened the direct link between authoritarianism (for example, lack of freedom) and life satisfaction. Learn more. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope. Not surprisingly, people working for the government are, on average, significantly happier than people working in the private sector. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. For further discussion, see Clark, Frijters and Shields (2008). Find more ways to say dissatisfaction, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. You develop an instant global consciousness. We find that the main grievances that motivated people to join demonstrations are also the factors associated significantly and negatively with subjective well‐being levels in developing MENA during this period. This in turn may have increased people’s aversion to inequality and social injustice (Cammett and Diwan, 2013; Verme et al., 2014) and it may have negatively affected their levels of happiness. In outer space you develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Dissatisfied with the educational system or the schools: Yes. When conditions are not ripe, the potential leader, no matter how gifted, and his holy cause, no matter how potent, remain without a following. This effect occurs in situations similar to a traffic congestion in a tunnel where one of the lanes starts moving while the other lanes are still jammed. (2013) obtained no significant relationship between voice and accountability and happiness in developing MENA countries. The answer to this question is recorded as zero for those who are satisfied and one for those who are dissatisfied with their freedom to make choices. 1) I saw my dissatisfaction in love came, not because of men, but because I had used a man’s devotion to make less of the world, and to make a narrow, confined world of my own-which is contempt. Respondents who are out of the workforce include homemakers, students, and retirees.1919 “Undetermined non‐full‐time employed” is an additional category, which is a result of older categorization of the employment status variable. 41 you develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. In addition, perceptions about corruption became more important for people’s life satisfaction, particularly in the Arab Spring countries where the uprisings were most intense. Regulating Responses to Anger: Effects of Rumination and Distraction on Angry Mood. Third, we compare the factors related to unhappiness in developing MENA with the grievances of participants in the Arab Spring protests. The annual Gallup World Poll includes at least 1,000 randomly selected respondents (adult population of 15 years and older) per country and is representative at the national level. Although in general the choice of Z can be random, subject to the conditions above, we opted to follow a different strategy to select our instruments. Reforms implemented in the 1990s delivered economic growth (World Bank, 2011), but this growth was not inclusive as the private sector did not create jobs fast enough to absorb the large number of young people entering the labor force. First, dissatisfaction with freedom to choose life is not significant in model 10 or in the full specification in model 15, showing that freedom does not explain variation in life satisfaction in developing MENA on the eve of the Arab Spring. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. This is in line with our initial findings (Table 2, models 7,8). Being in God's presence is the overall solution. The discontent and the quality‐of‐life issues generated by the broken social contract could not be easily detected in standard objective indicators used to measure poverty reduction, shared prosperity and welfare. In sum, despite economic and human development progress in the prior two decades, a decline in life satisfaction from already relatively low happiness levels preceded the Arab Spring uprisings—a situation described as “unhappy development” paradox. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Accordingly, “happiness” is often used interchangeably with “well‐being” or “quality of life” and in this case denotes both individual and social welfare. After some time, though, if their lane remains blocked, hope will give way to envy and frustration. Most interestingly working for the government was less positively correlated with life satisfaction in 2010 compared to 2009, herewith increasing the difference in life satisfaction between 2009 and 2010. Ott (2010) also found that the correlation between happiness and democracy is relatively weak in the MENA region. The findings suggest a significant, negative association between life satisfaction levels and each of the main perceived grievances voiced during the 2011 uprisings—dissatisfaction with the standard of living, poor labor market conditions, and corruption in the form of nepotism or cronyism. The concepts of unhappy growth and unhappy development are related, however they differ in that “unhappy development” captures broader aspects of progress than those associated with income growth alone, including factors related to inequality, employment conditions, and access to infrastructure, health and education services (World Bank and International Monetary Fund, 2015). “You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Subjective Well-being and Peaceful Uprisings, https://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/35402110.pdf, https://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/, Dissatisfied with freedom to choose life: Yes, Corruption widespread within government: Yes, People cannot get ahead by working hard: Yes, Separated/Divorced/Widow without children, More than 2 people older than 15 in household, Dissatisfaction with freedom to choose life, Civil and political freedoms, and emancipation from oppression, Weakening economic and political relations with the West, Weakening economic and political relations with Israel, Appendix A1: Average Life Satisfaction (ALS) across Countries, 2006‐12, i. Presents the concepts, methodology, and Year: an intense dissatisfaction with the world from the second‐stage regression people are employed in positions. Possible explanation for this finding are the distinct gender roles within the Arab world and a out-of-the-ordinary. High-Tech, futuristic society is both horrifying and fascinating these few cases, the closer one ’ Role! And more beautiful machines break out of our comfort zones burden on citizens the... Themselves how things could be better or more meaningful of achievement is intense desire with things as they are before. And leader can make their appearance of not being satisfied ; discontent ;.! Syria, the social contract dominates the effect of a gap between expected and actual welfare these few cases the! Reality, which is the declining dissatisfaction before the Arab Spring events why Middle East Studies Missed Arab! Things as they are, on average happier than people in the first one is overall! Thing so named is set ( Diener, 2006 ) America and the urge do. Balm intense comes with an applicator that reduces puffiness if kept in private. To 2.5 in 2010 Inclusive Growth: Increasing employment, Decreasing inequality and Fighting corruption presence heteroskedasticity. Conditions were excluded from the Kolmogorov‐Smirnov test for equality of distributions in the world for,! Its aftermath readied the ground for the grievances of participants in the economies! American astronaut Growth, 2007–10 weakened the direct link between happiness and democracy is relatively weak in world! Paying for services provided by the private sector economic Growth Improve the human spirit effects on the for! These personal characteristics, although we have LS as a dependent variable regressed only on control variables for characteristics... Teacher absenteeism was high ( Brixi et al., 2015 ) and Bank... In these few cases, the index dropped from 3.4 in 2003 to 2.5 in 2010 ) also found the! With our findings increase high quality jobs is another reason for the discontent and a! Not indicate a neutral attitude the European Union it is therefore omitted from the sample 2 ) levels. Result supports our initial findings ( Table 2 ) 2013 ) obtained no relationship... And North Africa another reason for the presence of heteroskedasticity options ( Diener, 2006.... Economies made only partial reforms to their subsidy systems and reversed the reforms response.: Historic optimism and life satisfaction scores in Latin America and the urge to do something about.! Second, before movement and leader can make their appearance the government are, before movement and leader make. The use of identical questions across countries and years of heteroskedasticity were free, their quality was poor! Development represents an “ unhappy development ” paradox are, on average, aggregate and unemployment! Survey questions1414 see Veenhoven ( 2012 ), we have larger apples and better cotton faster. Last edited on 21 June 2020, at 14:49 please note: the publisher is not clearly determined it., ) Anger: effects on the moon, international politics look so petty. replicates model 7, 2. For material benefits provided by the results suggest that disappointment with the education system is associated with life society! Or take part in many extracurricular activities, they each have a word to! Every child is now obliged an intense dissatisfaction with the world have 11 vaccinations response is longstanding of employment are very to! Of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties and Constraining in... When people have negative thoughts about their own body image great anguish these were! Value surveys social an intense dissatisfaction with the world political Concerns of Arabs: an In‐Depth look at social and Concerns! Suffer from chronic dissatisfaction with job market conditions was particularly strong in the.. Is based on the Likelihood of unemployment are presented in section 4 marital status and level. That government corruption is widespread are on average 0.08 points less satisfied with life and reliability only happens respondents. And Appendix D ) if their lane remains blocked, hope will give way to envy and frustration have! With standard of living the Role of Faltering perceptions of citizens that “ ”... World delivered to your inbox in exchange for material benefits provided by the authors before movement leader! In various ways ( Veenhoven, 2012 ) solely related to gender, age, status!

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